In addition to conventional water treatment, a major problem is the purification of sewage from industrial plants. For the possibility of draining sewage into water bodies or using them again, it is important to carry out the process of their purification in various ways and using special water coagulants.
Since the use of coagulants for water is of considerable importance for the purification of sewage, one must have an idea of the types of dirty effluents. Classify the dirty water can be on the following parameters:
In the first case, sewage is atmospheric, domestic, industrial. Atmospheric drains are those that have drained from the roofs after rain or melting snow, and also formed by water from transport for irrigation. Water, obtained as a result of household use, is represented by water drained from a toilet bowl, a sink, a bath. The water that was used in the plant for cooling or improving various reactions is toxic industrial effluent.
Depending on the stage of contamination, the effluents may contain soluble, colloidal or insoluble impurities. Depending on the type of contamination, sewage can be with the content of organic, mineral or biological substances. With the predominance in their composition of the impurities of the remains of the plant or animal world, one can speak of their organic nature. Mineral content is due to the presence of impurities of ores, salts, slags, alkalis. As impurities of a biological origin are viruses, bacteria, worms, yeast. With any type of contamination, it is not allowed to drain the effluents into the atmosphere without first having to clean them first. Use coagulants for water until it descends into a body of water or is launched into a production scheme.
The most effective means of wastewater treatment is a water coagulant that allows the water to be processed to a state that allows it to be reused (for example, when it comes to closed production cycles). On purpose, cleaning agents are divided into groups for household needs and industrial needs.
When using coagulants for water, when cleaning the pools, it is taken into account that the water needs not only to be cleaned, but also to be rendered harmless. After all, in the pool water from a large number of people are pieces of skin, sweat, hair. In this case, it is important to remove these elements without poisoning people. When using coagulants for water, impurities settle on the bottom, and then are removed by pumps or through a filter. But before mixing the water with the coagulant it is necessary to reveal its acidity level – if the value of this parameter is high, then with the addition of coagulants for water, the formation of poisoning elements is possible.
Examples of purifying reagents used to purify water in the basin are sulfate and aluminum chloride. However, in most cases chloride compounds are used for swimming pools. Often, these coagulants for water are also used in the pulp industry, where it is required to clean the equipment continuously (water becomes very dirty after this). Aluminum chloride is the most common water coagulant today.
This reagent is considered more productive, because it quickly copes with the elimination of turbidity of water. With its help, it is absolutely not necessary to adjust the acid-base balance. Flakes when using this coagulant for water are excellent and without any adjustments. Aluminum hydroxide also excellently eliminates heavy metal ions. It can be used to purify drinking water.
When lime is added and the concentration of these coagulants is varied, wastewater is purified from fluorides, which involves purifying water with an efficiency of up to 98%. Salts of aluminum or iron are also used to achieve the required degree of clarification of industrial wastewater.